Posted by: Administrator | 17 June, 2008

Electricity: Solutions and Ongoing Projects

Written by: Afreen Baig



 After the construction of the Hydro-Electric Tarbela Dam and the Mangla Dam, by General Ayub Khan and General  MiraniYahya Khan in the 1960’s, our governments failed to conceive and initiate major electricity projects.

 The inept governments of PML-N and PPP, that still consider themselves vital to democratic dialogue within the provinces, failed to create dialogue within provinces, on the most important issue facing Pakistan’s energy survival – the Kalabagh Dam. Their governments failed to plan for the future growth and energy requirements. Recently the government of PPP has scraped the project altogether.


Unexpected Economic Boom & Energy Consumption in the last 10 years

 Pakistan’s $75 billion economy boomed into a $160 billion economy, with the consumption of gas, electricity and coal increasing YEARLY to an average rate of 7.8 percent, 5.1 percent and 8.8 percent, respectively.

 The number of electricity consumers grew from 15.9 million in 2005-06 to 16.7 million in 2007, showing a growth of about 70 percent over the last 10 years.

 The major Energy consumption sectors of the country are: Industrial (38.3 percent), Transport (32.8 percent), Residential and Commercial (25 percent), Agriculture (2.5 percent) and others (2.2 percent).

 As regards Electricity, the Household sector has been the largest consumer over the last 10 years, on average consuming 44.8 percent, followed by Industrial sector (29.4 percent), Agriculture (12.2 percent), Commercial sector (5.9 percent), Street lights (10.6 percent), the officials say.


Record Sales of Electronic Items

 Recently, we got good news from Pakistan Haier. In May, Pakistan Haier made new RECORD air-conditioner, refrigerator monthly output. The sale volume reached all time high, the year-on-year sale increase of Air-conditioner, Refrigerator, Washing machine, Micro wave and TV are 136%, 58%, 180%, 210% and 106% respectively. Similarly, many other Electronic Companies have created record sales.


Projects executed and under Construction

 The first unit of 290-megawatt of Ghazi Brotha Hydel Project (GBHP) went into operation in June 2003, and  hydro-power-inventioncontributed around 50mw of electricity to the national grid. Four more units were added every quarter, and by 2004 the GBHP was contributing 1,450 mw.

Nuclear power plant Chashma-2, will soon come on-line, and will add another 300MW to the national grid.

Mangla Dam uprising will give another 644 GWh of power.

Gomal Zam Dam is under final stage of construction, and upon completion it will produce 17.4MW

According to Census of Electricity Establishments, 2005-06, Government of Pakistan,

In 1999, our installed capacity was merely 15,860 MW. (With Hydel 4826 + Thermal 10,897 + Nuclear 137)

 In 2005-06, our installed capacity increased to become 20,495 MW. (With Hydel 6499 + Thermal 13,534 + Nuclear 462)


Concrete steps under the PML-Q Government

 President Pervez Musharraf launched the Rs 130 billion (US 2.16 billion) Neelum-Jhelum Hydroelectric project aimed at producing 969 MW power.

Work on 11 projects with an accumulative power generation capacity of more than 12,000MW would start by 2009. These projects include Bunji (5,400MW), Dasu (4,000MW), Kohala (1,100MW), Spatgah and Palas Valley (1,230MW).

Wind and Solar Technology: Pakistan is seeking to explore alternative sources of energy production and use Wind and solar technologies with the aim to produce 9,700 MW wind power by 2030, thereby providing electricity to 7,874 off-grid villages in Sindh and Baluchistan.

225 wind water pumping systems have been installed in Balochistan. Over 140 micro wind turbines of 500 Watts each are operational in Sindh and Balochistan, providing electricity to 691 houses in 18  remote, off-grid villages.

Hydel Power: The government is giving top priority to Hydel power with the potential of producing 40,000 MW Power of which only 15 percent had been exploited so far. 

In 2001, the Water and Power Development Authority of Pakistan identified 22 sites for launching Hydropower projects to meet the ever-increasing demand for cheap power. It indicated that about 15,074 mw could be generated on the completion of these projects, which would also meet the water irrigation requirements for the growing agriculture sector.

  Pakistan Sugar Mills: Association (PSMA) has informed the government that sugar mills can produce 2,000MW of electricity in the next five years.

  Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission: (PAEC) has decided to establish an Engineering Design Organization (EDO) for the indigenous development of nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the country. The PAEC informed authorities that it was planning to add about 1,260MW through Hydel power, 880MW from Alternate energy, 4,860MW from Gas, 900MW from Coal and 160MW from Oil by 2010.

 The Karachi Electric Supply Corporation (KESC) is investing in a new 220-megawatt power plant that will help control the power shortages in the city, said. The plant will start generating 192MW by March and the remaining 28MW will start being distributed by December 2008.

Thar Coal: The government has decided to develop the Thar coal for power generation on a priority basis to overcome energy crisis following. Out of six various companies that inked MoU with concern authorities to establish coal power projects; two companies have started drilling work in their respective areas.

  • Confirmed estimates that its reserves were equivalent to at least 850 Trillion Cubic Feet (TCF) of gas – about 30 times higher than Pakistan’s proven gas reserves of 28 TCF.
  • By using only 2% of the existing coal reserves, we can generate around 20,000 MW (20 GW) for almost 40 years
  • These estimates were confirmed by separate bankable feasibility studies conducted by Chinese and Russian experts.
  • 185 Billion Tons of coal deposits in Pakistan were second only to 247 Billion Ton reserves in the United States and much higher than 157 and 115 Billion Ton reserves of Russia and China, respectively.
  • Thar coal reserves were equivalent to at least 400 Billion Barrels of oil – equivalent to oil reserves of Saudi Arabia and Iran put together. One estimate puts Pakistan’s coal energy at 576 Billion Barrels of oil which is equivalent to the combined oil reserves of the 3 largest producers.

The government is planning to set up 5,000-megawatt power generation facilities using coal as fuel within next few years.


Ongoing Power and Water Projects

 The Ongoing Power Projects for which allocations have been made in 2007-08 Budget, are Mangla Dam Raising  Mangla Dam RaisingProject (Rs 20 billion), Mirani Dam (Rs 500 million), Sabakzai Dam (Rs 200 million), Kurram Tangi Dam (Rs 2.84 billion), Sadpara Multipurpose Dam Rs (900 million), Gomal Zam Dam (Rs 1.8 billion), the Greater Thal Canal Phase I (Rs 8.5 billion), the Greater Thal Canal Phase II (Rs 2.5 billion), construction of 20 small dams in NWFP (Rs 870 million), Bhasha/ Diamer Dam (Rs 500 million), Khan-Khawar hydro project (Rs 1.3 billion), Dubir Khawar hydro project (Rs 2.1 billion), transmission arrangements for power dispersal of Ghazi Barotha (Rs 1.67 billion) and Neelam-Jhelum hydro project (Rs 10 billion).


New projects for the next fiscal year include the Sukkur Barrage Rehabilitation and Improvement project (Rs 100 million), Akhori Dam PC I (Rs 200 million), construction of Jaban Hydroelectric Power Station and Jaban Hydroelectric Power Station (Rs 40 million).

Upcoming Immediate Projects

 Three rental power houses would start generating 1,067 megawatts of electricity by end of year 2008, respectively. Agreements had been signed with China to establish power plants at Nandipur and Chichu ki Malian, and tenders had been issued for two 500MW power plants at Dadu and Faisalabad which would be run by gas and furnace oil. An 800MW power plant would be set up at Guddu.

Pakistan Dam Planning 2000-2025


Pakistan’s energy sector & the Kalabagh Dam misconceptions impact Pakistan’s progress-Pervez Musharraf-24th Oct 2010

by Pervez Musharraf on Tuesday, 26 October 2010 at 14:42

Question: Why was the energy sector neglected? Why could Kalabagh Dam not be built? 

It is not correct to say that the Energy Sector was neglected during my tenure. Energy Sector was given the high priority it warranted. Facts which are visible on ground are being distorted or misinterpreted, either on purpose or due to lack of knowledge. Some pertinent details are given below for your reference: 

Till 2002 we were surplus in electricity by up to 1,200 MW due to poor economic conditions and negligible development in Pakistan throughout the 90’s. Under contractual obligations, we had to pay through our nose to IPPs for this excess power that we could not utilize.

    From 2002 onwards our industry grew in double figures at about 15% annually. There was tremendous economic/commercial activity and about 125,000 villages were electrified in 6 years (as opposed to the 1,500 villages per year in the past). All this growth put pressure on our electricity generation capacity.
  • However alongside this demand surge, total generation capacity between 2002 and 2007 was increased by about 3,700MW. This was the reason why despite development, power shortages and loadsheding were unknown until late 2007.

  • This was no mean achievement. I agree that we should have moved even faster to keep pace with the unprecedented upsurge in economy and rapid industrialization in the country. However we need to understand that the installation of generation capacity has to be balanced with the actual demand of the users. Otherwise, the imbalance places a heavy and avoidable pressure on the exchequer which has to pay power producers for their idle capacity.

  • The demand by 2008 had grown unprecedentedly by 5,000MW. Therefore we suffered a total shortfall of about 1,300MW in spite of the additional 3,700MW that were added to the national grid. We initiated projects to meet even this shortfall that are coming on line now (Chichonkimalian-450MW, Nandipur-450MW, Chashma Power Plant-350MW).

    Today, the main problem being faced by the public is not due to deficiency of power but an inability to utilise 18,000MW of existing electricity production capacity. This is due to reduction in industrial/commercial activity and a circular debt problem whereby the power generators have reduced generation for not having their bills paid. 

     It is indeed my regret that Kalabagh dam could not be started. I and my team tried our level best to take both the provinces of NWFP and Sindh along towards agreeing to construct Kalabagh. I spoke out in public gatherings and all my media interactions in order to evolve a consensus in support for the Kalabagh Dam. I constituted a political committee (headed by Mr. Nisar Memon), and a high powered Technical Committee comprising experts in this field from all the provinces under the Chairmanship of an expert of high standing (Mr. ANG Abbassi). The Planning Commission kept adequate allocation to commence construction of the Kalabagh Dam in the PSDP. Unfortunately the project was so misunderstood, politicized and riddled with suspicions, particularly in Sindh, that all political leaders became vehemently against it. Inaction was on account of advice of political leaders. We however did initiate the Bhasha Dam, which is a reasonable substitute. 

    Pervez Musharraf 

    Kalabagh dam may help save Rs33b a year

    Published in the Express Tribune, October 9th, 2010

    LAHORE: The Lahore Chamber has said that construction of the Kalabagh dam will help save 20 million barrels of oil a year needed to produce thermal power.

    This will translate into average yearly benefit of Rs33.2 billion, which is currently being spent on the purchase of furnace oil, Lahore Chamber of Commerce and Industry (LCCI) President Zafar Iqbal Chaudhry said. He was chairing an executive committee meeting convened to discuss the issue of water. He said that the nation had been suffering this loss every year for the last many years.

    “Those who were opposing the Kalabagh dam were not doing any favour to the nation,” he said. “Pakistan is facing an acute water and electricity shortage and the only viable solution is the immediate construction of Kalabagh dam which can be built in three years,” he said. “Pakistan will be devastated by the time Basha dam is commissioned eight years later,” he added.

    Chaudhry urged the government to expedite the process of filing its case against India’s Kishanganga dam for international arbitration as the project is likely to divert water from Neelum river to Wullar Lake. This means that the Neelum– Jhelum project would have to be abandoned. “It would adversely affect the huge agricultural land in Azad Kashmir,” he said.

    Chaudhry said that there was a dire need to depoliticise the Kalabagh dam issue and the chamber would extend cooperation to the government in achieving consensus on the issue. He said that the government could develop a consensus on the Kalabagh dam as it had done in the case of the National Finance Commission Award and the 18th Amendment. “If it succeeds, Pakistan will achieve progress and prosperity.


    Back-to-back walkouts mar proceedings

    Published in The Express Tribune, October 9th, 2010.


    QUETTA: Two provincial ministers from the Awami National Party (ANP) staged a walkout from the Balochistan Assembly session on Friday after Speaker Aslam Bhootani did not allow them to speak on a Punjab Assembly resolution about the construction of the controversial Kalabagh Dam.

     After recitation from the Holy Quran, Provincial Minister for Revenue Zamurk Khan Achakzai of the ANP raised the issue of Kalabagh Dam on a point of order. The speaker did not allow him to continue his speech and asked him to meet him in the speaker’s chamber to discuss the issue. However, Khan staged a walkout in protest. He ended his protest after his fellow ministers Sadiq Umrani and Ayinullah Shams persuaded him to return to the house.

    Talking to journalists after the session, Khan said the Punjab Assembly did not take three provinces into confidence before passing a resolution on Kalabagh Dam. “We will oppose this move and will not allow anyone to construct this dam,” he added.

    Last week, the Punjab Assembly passed a resolution urging the federal government to evolve a consensus on the construction of the reservoir.

    However, Khan termed the resolution as a conspiracy against democracy. “The Punjab Assembly should not have passed the resolution at a time when the country is facing internal and external problems,” he said referring to the catastrophic floods and cross-border attacks by Nato forces.

    He warned that any attempt to build the Kalabagh Dam would push the country towards a 1971-like situation. “We are not against the construction of dams but we will never allow the Kalabagh Dam to be built,” he added. Khan said his party would soon table a resolution in the Balochistan Assembly to oppose the construction of the dam.

    PPP lawmaker Ali Madad Jatak also staged a walkout from the assembly after the speaker did not allow him to speak on his privilege motion.

    “Excise, police and levies personnel intercepted my vehicle on the National Highway while I was returning from flood-hit Dera Murad Jamali in Jafarabad district. They searched my vehicles, documents and also misbehaved with me,” he said on a point of order before leaving the assembly hall.

    Jatak alleged that his privilege was breached at the behest of the provincial government. “Chief Minister Nawab Aslam Raisani and Provincial Minister Sadiq Umrani are politically victimising me,” he alleged.

    The Balochistan Assembly also condemned the twin suicide attacks on the shrine of Sufi saint Abdullah Shah Ghazi in Karachi and also offered Fateh for the victims.




    1. ”Having the courage to take the steps we always wanted to take is the only way to show that we trust god”Paulo Coelho.
      President is the best thing that happened to us,He worked with dedication and a strong desire to build pakistan.A soldier who fought wars for the country and was ready to give his life ,what more proof do we need.We need him again to pull us out and lead us to progress.

    2. Great effort and info I could spend the whole day just reading. I ws never one for Economy as a subject , but today it fascinates me. Thank-you Afreen & Mirza for making facts so enjoyable 🙂

      USA/China and Saudi Arabia will not give cash to the PPP Govt but will pay towards out standing Loans and On- Going Projects of Pakistan…..If that is not a V- sign for some one what is? 😉 does it look like a wink? as it is suppose to be one 🙂

    3. hi
      i like to know about this project too

    4. i m wazir.humey sirf yea batao k yea dam kab baney ga uor kiya is ki bijli wana ko den gay k nahi.uor plz wana may dana dam b bana day. tanks

    5. He was a visionary, he expected too much from the Pakistani public, who let him down and as susal bet on the worng horse.

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